There's a good chance you'll have to pass hunters safety if you haven't had a license in another state, but it's no big deal. Here in Idaho they even have an online course where you just have to show up for one shooting day. Military may be able to opt out, but I don't know.
This was my first year really deer hunting (my father hunted because we needed the meat, but I didn't go out more than once or twice after hunters safety). So take all of this with a grain of salt. I actually just joined the group because I was in a similar boat a few months back, and really would like to encourage you to go for it.
As far as camo goes, your BDUs are probably more than sufficient. Many people hunt without it (I didn't wear any and was successful, but we have a much longer season here and either sex for a whitetail tag)...matching general lightness and proper technique seem to be regarded as more important than the fanciest design. Overall comfort is going to matter much more than anything else, especially if you get rain/snow.
Rifles...endless debate. I've been reading like crazy for the last three months, and it goes round and round. My family hunted with a Winchester .30-30 and .32. I absolutely hated them. When I decided to hunt I went to a friend who used to own a gun store, and she laid out all sorts of options for me. I ended up falling in love with a Savage model 99 in .308, and it ended up working great for me. She hunts with a Springfield bored to .300 win mag (set up for much longer ranges than we see here, so she loads the rounds very cold now). There are something like a dozen common calibers, and hundreds of rifles, that are great for deer. They all have upsides and downsides, and practice is more important than the rifle itself.
And shooting the M16 will be good training. I'm sure they've drilled out the flinch reflex, and you will have put more rounds downrange than some hunters shoot in a lifetime. It's a smaller caliber than most hunt with (although some will use an AR-15), and you may have to get used to bolt or lever action rather than semi-auto, but it won't be a big jump.
Last edited by Gromky; 12-06-2008 at 01:56 AM.