Don't be in a hurry to guy a deer rifle. You are most likely still growing. A rifle that fits you well now may not fit you well in the future. To get all the potential accuracy out of a firearm, the firearm needs to fit you well. You also may change your mind about the caliber in a year or two. Would this only be used for deer, or would/could it also be used for bear, elk and/or moose? Recoil does make a difference. How accurate/consistant are you with a heavy recoil gun? I am not talking about a short range shot but a shot of 300 to 400 yards. Go to the stores and check out the regular price of ammo for the different deer calibers. Make sure it is a deer load and not a practice, target or varmint load.
Look for quality and not just price. Do your research. Price does not alway mean quality. The Mossberg ATR is one of the lower priced bolt action rifles, but I am not impressed with its accuracy in the reviews I have read. I suggest a Remingon 700 or a Savage for a bolt action. A single shot is also a consideration. I have not shot them, but people seem to like the Thompson Center Encore. A used gun can be a good deal. However, take someone with that truly knows a lot about firearms and what to look for in a used gun. Have them check everything! Bring your own ammo and test fire a used gun under favorable weather conditions. Some guns are only accurate with a speciic hand load. If they don't allow you to try out a used gun, I would not buy it. Also take an expert with to check out a new gun. I check everything on a new gun before we start the paperwork (trigger, barrel, action, stock, fit, finish, sights, magazine, etc.). More than once, I have found a problem with a new in box gun.
Do you have access to a 22LR rifle that you can shoot often? If not, you may want to consider buying a 22LR first (this could also be a used gun). This is not a deer cartidge, but it is a great practice and small varmint rifle. A 22LR has the least expensive ammo which means you can afford to practice more often. Work on correct shooting form and accuracy. While growing up, I would shoot 1,000 or more gophers each year on my parents pasture lands. This really helped me to develop my shooting skills. I could consistanly have a clean kill on a gopher over 100 yards away with my open sight 22LR. Be aware that a 22LR is more prone to ricochet, and it is still a deadly cartridge. In September, I would take out my scoped 30-06 and shoot two or three gophers. If I could hit a gopher at 150 to 200 yards with my deer rifle, both myself and my deer gun were ready for the deer season.
Good luck and be safe!