Honestly, I think you have a dead deer somewhere. How many acres are you hunting? If I were you I would go back there and search all day long until I found blood spots. Go to a hardware store and buy you some marking flags (those ones utility companies use to mark wires) and place a flag EVERY spot there is blood. Then after you absolutely cannot find anymore... step back and look at the direction the blood is going (by looking at the flags). Then if I was 100% sure that buck wasn't on MY property,,, whoever owns land in the direction that blood is pointing would get a VERY NICE and RESPECTFUL phone call from me, BEGGING to come and search around to find a downed buck. That's what I would do. DO NOT just give up,,, if you were using a rage and it broke off in the shoulder and there was blood 3 inches further up the arrow shaft that was broken off... I'd say you made a good enough hit. Now, was it a lethal hit... maybe not right away, but I guarantee you if you backed out like you said you did, he ran no more than 300yds and then layed down somewhere and bled out. REMEMBER, deer blend in to the surroundings EXCELLENTLY! SO keep combing your property and flag the heck out of it.
If I lived closer I'd come help ya man!
...and on that day when my strength is failing, the end draws near and my times has come, still my soul will sing Your praise unending, ten thousand years and then forevermore!